Stone

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CHARACTERISTICS

Stone is a material that consists of minerals and it is categorized by its mineral content. Rock is divided by the way it is born to magma stone, sediment rock and metamorphic rock. Magma stone is born when molten rock material a.k.a. magma crystallized in the depth of lithosphere or at the surface of earth. Sediment rock a.k.a. stratified stones are born when bedrock is disintegrated when loose partly organic material compounded at erosion eddies, stratifies and packs so hardens. Construction of sediment rock is almost always layered. Metamorphic rock is born when rock is re-crystallized a.k.a. metamorphosed under high temperature and/or high pressure. The changes happen always at solid space.

Finnish bedrock is part of old Precambrian (time period  4 600 – 570 million years ago) North and East European bedrock area a.k.a. Fennosarmatian bedrock craton which is one of the oldest part of Eurasian continent. Different granitic rock forms the most common rock Finnish bedrock. It is estimated to be little over half (52,5%) of area of Finnish bedrock. From single rock granite is the most common in Finland and it is also the Finnish national rock. Also migmatites appears quite lot at Finnish bedrock but different alkaline stones, shales, quartzite and limestone are more rare at Finnish bedrock.

USAGE

Natural stone has been used as boulders from nature at an early age. At traditional building foundations and bases were often made without plaster as so called dry masonry that could point. Stones in plaster wall are mason together with plaster. Finnish rock is hard and are slow and difficult to process by hand. Because of that proper stone building among other things is traditionally concentrated to public buildings such as churches and castles. Granite has been the most important building stone in Finland because it is the most common rock. It was encouraged to build with stone especially at the 18th century. At the turn of the 19th and the 20th century it was favored natural stone facades at the Finnish architecture.
Natural stone is mined from rock as big pieces and after that it is processed mechanically, for example by sawing and polishing to a end product. End products of natural stone are including tiles for indoors and outdoors, kerb and cobblestone. Stone is also used as a detail at decoration, as fireplaces, table tops, small objects and environmental construction.

AVAILABILITY

You can buy natural stone from garden centers, quarries and construction companies but you can also collect stone for yourself as long as you remember to ask permission from the land owner.

LINKS

FINLAND:

Information aboutFinnish natural stone ant their use
http://www.finstone.fi/luonnonkivi.php

Natural stone at yard constuction - bachelor thesis
https://publications.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/33217/Kauhanen_Juha.pdf?sequence=1

Restoring of footing
http://www.rakennusperinto.fi/Hoito/Korjaus_artikkelit/fi_FI/kivijalankunnostus/

Sources:

http://fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kivi

http://www.geologia.fi/index.php/2011-12-21-12-30-30/2011-12-21-12-40-22/magmakivien-luokittelu

http://www.graniittikeskus.fi/sedimentti.html

http://www.geologia.fi/index.php/2011-12-21-12-30-30/2011-12-21-12-40-22/metamorfisten-kivien-luokittelu

http://fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suomen_kallioper%C3%A4

http://www.rakennusperinto.fi/Hoito/Rakennusmateriaaleja/fi_FI/Luonnonkivi/

http://www.gtk.fi/geologia/luonnonvarat/luonnonkivet/

 

ESTONIAN LINKS:

 

http://www.nokitse.ee/failid/pdf/vundament%20ja%20sokkel.pdf A practical article about foundations made from limestone and rubble stone and about reparation and maintenance of sockets.

 

http://www.geoeducation.info/geoturism/randkivid.php

 

http://www.geoeducation.info/geoturism/paekivi.php

 

Intensive but compendious articles about boulders and local limestone.

 

 

www.agri.ee/public/juurkataloog/MAAELU/MAK/buklett5.pdf

 

Content-rich article about how to establish, restore and mend stone fences.

 

http://www.eestiloodus.ee/artikkel3569_3538.html

 

http://www.loodusajakiri.ee/eesti_loodus/index.php?id=1688

 

Articles about stone fences then and now in the magazine Eesti Loodus.

 

 

www.lossikivi.ee Business that deals with digging, handling and selling natural stone materials. The value of this website lies in the description and photos about the types of rubble and lime stone in different countries.

 

 

http://www.sirp.ee/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=237:n-itus-mis-v-rib-k-nlaid&catid=6:kunst&Itemid=10&issue=3195 Estonian rubble stone is also used by jewelry designers. There are several references to many designers in the article in Sirp about the 2008 art exhibition.

 

 

http://www.tamsalu.ee/paemuuseum/ Porkun’s Limestone Museum from the year 1992. A nice website that is rich with information, mainly concerning limestones.

 

 

Websites for businesses dealing with rubble and limestone.

 

 

http://www.maakivi.com/ Rubble stone buildings, fireplaces, foundations and sockets. An overview from products and paintings carried out by the gallery.

 

 

http://maakivi.eu/ Ander Kivi OÜ’s roads and facades from rubble stone. The cutting and crushing of rubble stones.

 

 

http://www.eestikivi.ee/ Pavement stones and broken rubble stones. Sale and installation.

 

 

http://parim.ee/koduleht/kivikaru-ou Selling and installing rubble stone, including stone baskets.

 

 

http://www.ungrukivi.ee/ A large company that digs at the limestone fractures around Ungru; limestone products and crushed stones with a various level of processing.

 

 

http://www.paekivi.ee/ - OÜ Põhjakivi. Limestone products with a different quality and made with the help of different technologies.

 

http://www.linnakivi.ee/est/Veebi-avaleht - Pärtli Paas OÜ. At Pärtli farms’ limestone fracture, the limestone is being broken by hand. Handling, sale and installation.

 

http://www.revalstone.com/- formerly names as Saare Dolomiit-Väokivi. An ambitious large company, website with a lot of information.

 

http://stoneplus.ee/ Selling, handling and installing natural stones from local and foreign material.

NB! Businesses whose websites have been mentioned are not in any way privileged. All of the businesses are not the very best and they might not have quality goods. Their websites do not give full information; the client has to be careful and gather additional information about them. The quality of the websites might not correspond to the quality of their goods and products.  

 


LIMESTONE

 
CHARACTERISTICS

Limestone is born mainly by precipitation from seawater either through living organism which bind calcite (for example clams) or inorganically without help of living organisms. Because living organisms has significant part of the birth of limestone it is natural that there are usually fossils in the limestone. Limestone consists mainly of calcite but are versitile by their color range, color shades changes from light to black. Because of fossils calcite’s surface pattern varies abundantly but if fossils doesn’t appear limestone is typically very fine-grained. Limestone is notably more softter than granite because the substance and the way of birth of the limestone. Because of movement of lithospheric plates and the resulting mountain folding some of these seabed limestone deposits have moved to interior far away from the current sea coast. A good example of this is fault is Central European Jura Mountains which is almost completely limestone.


USAGE

Limestone is used as construction stone both in the raw and in the form of marble and as a building material including to producing cement. Calcite limestone is used especially to produce iron, steel and glass. It can be used as a chemical at cooking of cellulose. Lime is also used to prevent acidity at agriculture. Limestone that consists of carbonate minerals reacts easily with acid rains in urban environment and the stone sustains poorly urban circumstances and temperature variations. Because of that it is mainly used at decoration such as floor area and staircases.


AVAILABILITY

Limestone is one of the most common rock on the planet. Though there is very little limestone in Finland. Limestone found from Finland is about 2 billion years old whereas limestone deposits in Gotland, Sweden and Vasalemma, Estonia are 400 million years old. Limestone is not mined for natural stone production. Limestone is generally mined type of rock all around the world. For example different types of limestone is mined in Sweden.

LINKS

Sources:
http://finstone.fi/geologia/kalkkikivi.php
http://www.erikstone.com/kalkkikivet/kalkkikivet.htm
http://fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalkkikivi
http://fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalsiitti
http://finstone.fi/kiviteollisuusliitto/materiaaliopas.pdf
http://www.erkkisaari.fi/